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Florence - Santa Maria Novella Abbey

Facciata della Basilica di SMNSanta Maria Novella is before everything, one of the greatest abbeys in Florence. The name “Novel” them comes having replaced on the public square an oratory of IX the century, already magnified in 1094, called Saint Maria of the Vines. In the 1221 this church and the surrounding area they come assigns to the Dominican friars, than endured they begin the transformation. The construction of that one of the magnificent center of the powerful “Dominican” Order begins in 1246 at the hands of two monaci architects: between Sisto Fiorentino and Ristoro from Fields. The work comes concluded in 1360 under the direction of between Iacopo Talents, author also of the Cappellone of Spanish (1350-55), of the Refectory of convent (1353) and the great bell tower cuspidato in Romanesque-gotico style (1330). In the 1470 Leon Battista Alberti it completed of the facade, where the medieval elements were mirabilmente harmonize to you with the new parts of the albertiano plan. The relations of the parts between they and with all are established from a harmonic system proporziona them derived from the simple relationships (one to one, one to two, one to three, etc) that they are to the base of the musical harmony. This system allowed the Alberti to define the position and the dimension of every element of the prospect. The relationship of one to two governs the composition of the entire facade, that it turns out registered in a square, while a smaller square (with equal side to the half of that greater one) establishes the relationship between the two plans, decomposes the inferior part and circumscribes the part centers them advanced. This relation is maintained for all the elements of the prospect, so that all the facade geometrically turns out constructed on the base of a progressive halving or doubling of the measures, always maintaining the same proportion.

Pianta della Basilica di SMNThe facade of the church can be registered in a square. Dividend in two the square second a horizontal line, the advanced part, with regard to the square between the intentional ones, is equivalent to a quarter.

New dividend of this surface in two, I obtain of sixteenth of surface that registers with precision the lateral ones.

The portale centers them is high once and half its width (relationship of 2/3);

Il ChiostroThe height of wraps centers them to hinge is equal to the width of the lateral portali and the avelli, and is seven times the height of the inferior order.

The sides of the squares inlay to you on wrap center them are a third party of the height of wrap same and the double quantity of the diameter of the columns of the inferior part.

The Sol Invictus represented on the eardrum is the coat of arms of the quarter of Saint Maria Novel, but also a symbol of force and reason

Pianta della Basilica di SMNThe diameter of the round one of the Sun is exactly the half of the diameter of the rosone (comprised the frame) and is equal to that one of the circles in the intentional ones.

The lunette over the doors between 1616 were painted from Ulisse and 1618. That one centers represents them Saint Tommaso d' Aquino in prayer in front of crocifisso (on the background the Rucellai coat of arms and the processione of the Corpus Dominions that beginning in Saint had Maria Novel). Those lateral ritraggono two personages of Old Testament traditionally legacies to the eucaristica allegoria: Aroon with the manna, to right, and Melchisedech with breads, on the left.

The Basilica has a Latin cross plant, subdivided in three navate with six widths lived that rimpiccioliscono towards altar (11,50 m. towards the altar against the 15 towards the facade), giving to the feeling of one greater length of that real one. The cover is entrusted to the times to cruise to costoloni with arches to sixth acute one, decorates to you from tans bichromiums inmarble greens and white man, supported from polistili pillars, that is to mixed section. The amplitude of the navata one centers them and its height to the limit of the static possibilities for a building of the sort makes yes that the lateral navate ones airily seem fused in an only amplissima classroom. Large tramezzo seprava anciently a presbiterio, the restricted area to the religious ones, from the longitudinal navate ones where they took to place the faithfuls, but came demolished between 1565 and 1571, when you the navata one worked Vasari of Cosimo I. In the same period on a commission basis came shortened the long monofore, so as to to low leave the space for new lateral altars. The pavement accommodated anciently most numerous stones to death funeral, that they came selected in the restoration of 1857-1861 and partially placed between the lateral pillars. In the 1800's the altar always came reconstructed centers them, in neogotico style, and came recomposed the windows and the lateral altars, giving to the church the aspect put into effect them.

Altars of the left nave one.
Numerous and of highest profile they are the art works, between which it detaches the Trinità di Masaccio, work experiences them on the use of the perspective, on purpose of which the Vasari had to say: “It seems that that wall is bucato”. It represents one of the more capolavori important of the rinascimentale art, performance of new canosni the stilistici ones in painting, to the par of the architectonic goals of Brunelleschi and scultorei of Donatello. The sacred scene is acclimatized in one monumental classic architecture, designed with realistic point of escape for being watched from the bottom, while the figure of God support the Cross of Christ, with a majestic attitude, eloquent and solemn. Also the figures of the committenti, the Lenzi spouses, knelt down to sides of the scene, represent a most important innovation, painted for before the time to natural dimension, not small little figures of contour, and with a most remarkable realism beyond to which to traspare also their sense of religiosità and the devozione. The written one on the sarcofago is a memento Moors.
In the navata one some are remarkable always works sepolcri, like tomba of the Bishop of Fiesole di Tino di Camaino and an other of Nino Pisano.

Altars of the skillful nave one.
Close to the first pillar near the controfacciata one the aquasantiera in marble is found, on one colonnina of mischio red, work of French manufacture of 1412. On the altar that corresponds to the first span finds the burlap with the Martyrdom of Saint Lorenzo, work of Girolamo Macchietti of 1573. On the second a Natività di Giovan is placed Naldini Batiste, of 1577, while close the dead woman in 1381 finds itself tomba of the Villana Blessed soul (), imporatnte work of rinascimentale sculpture (1451): the face of the blessed soul was carved from Bernardo Rossellino, the left angel of from Antonio Rossellino and that one of right from Desire from Settignano. The third altar introduces the burlap of the Presentation to the tempio, always of Naldini (1577), and in the vicinities the Giovanni from Salerno is placed tomba of the Blessed soul, quattrocentesca work but the effige she came dispersed during the risistemazione of the church of 1570, for which one new sculpture came carved from Vincenzo Gives to you following one quattrocentesco style. In the lived quarter an other shovel of the Naldini, the Deposition camps on the altar. To sides they are found on the left the monument to Ruggero Minerbetti, of Silvio Cosini (1528-1530 approximately) and to right that one to Tommaso Minerbetti, renewed in the second half of the 1500's. The fifth altar was used from the companies of the Pilgrim and the Tempio and is decorated from the Preech of Saint Vincenzo Ferrer and the Redentore di Jacopo Coppi said of the Best. The sixth and last altar, little after a door that leads to the Pure chapel of (the today accessible one from the fencing of the avelli, sees under), is decorated from the Saint Raimondo that resuscita a child, of Jacopo Ligozzi (1620-1623), while close to the angle the funeral monument of Giovan is found Ricasoli Batiste (dead man in 1572), in marble, attributed to Romolo of the Tadda.

The transet it is crossed from a short perron that door to the altars and the posterior nails head and that replaces the tramezzo of the presbiterio from the vasariana ristutturazione of 1565-1571. It is composed from three spans to square base, a great chapel nearly centers them, large as the entire span centers them, and two braces of popsteriori nails head of halved amplitude. Moreover are two nails head sopraelevate to the extremities, from which it is approached also the sagrestia (on the left) and the chapel Of the Pure one (to right). In the keys of time of the cruises symbolic figures in stone are found, carved and gilded in the 1300's.
In the skillful side three parietal interments of remarkable interest are found:
* Tomba of Tedice Aliotti, the bishop of Fiesole died in 1336, attributed to Maso di Banco (up).
* Tomba of fra' Aldovrabndo Riding, the bishop of Orvieto died to Florence in 1279 (on the left).
* Tomba of Giuseppe, the patriarch of Costantinopoli died to Florence during I conciliate in 1440, with a painting low walls them of anonymous author fiorentino representing the defunct one between two angels ().
Close to the gradinata one for the Rucellai chapel the tombale slab of Corrado of the Pen is found, bishop of Fiesole died in 1312, work of the cerchia of Arnolfo di Cambio.

The Greater chapel or Tornabuoni chapel is found to the center of the church behind the greater altar. The Crocifisso centers them is a work of the Giambologna. The chorus conserve a most important cycle of frescoes of Domenico Ghirlandaio, to which probably the young worked also Michelangelo Buonarroti, then in its bottega. They are represents episodes to you of the Life of the Vergine and San Giovanni, acclimatized in contemporary Florence and with numerous ritratti of the committenti and personalities flourishing some of the age, typical characteristic of the Ghirlandaio. On the posterior wall the scenes of Saint Domenico are represented who burns the heretical books, the martyrdom of Saint Peter, the annunciation and Saint Giovanni in the desert. On the segments of the time they are represents the Evangelisti to you.

The chapel of Filippo Strozzi is on the right of the chapel centers them and is decorated with spledido a cycle of frescoes of Philippine Lippi, with torie of the screw of Saint Filippo apostle and Saint evangelista Giovanni (finished before 1502). On the skillful side Saint Filippo it drives away the dragone from the tempio of Hierapolis and on lunetta the crocefissione of Saint Filippo; on the left Saint resuscita Giovanni Drusiana and up the martyrdom of Saint Giovanni; in lunette of the time the Adam, Noè, Abramo and Giacobbe. Particular importance has the scenes centers them of frescoes, acclimatized in of the fantasiose classic architectures, in whose secen a crash between Christian culture and aganism is fought, a burning topic then the present time in how much was the period of government of the Savonarola. Behind the altar it is present the tomba of Filippo Strozzi, carved from Benedict from Maiano (1491-1495).

The chapel Bards is the second one to right and was diAlessandro Bards from the beginnings of XV the century. The high relief on the right pillar ritrae Saint Gregorio who benedice Riccardo Bardi and is of that period. It frescoes are instead of the three hundred, attributed from some to Aretino Spinel. The Madonna of the Rosaio on the altar is of George Vasari (1568).

The Rucellai chapel is found in position raised in bottom to the arm skillful of the transetto and laughed them to the 1300's. Maromerea statue of Madonna with child of Nino Pisano is conserved you one, of the half of XIV the century. It frescoes are unfortunately a lot damages to you and only remain of fragments attributed to the Master of the Saint Cecilia (restores to you in 1989). The panel on the wall of left was painted from Giuliano Bugiardini, while the funeral momumento in bronze to the center of the pavement, was realized from Lorenzo Ghiberti in 1425. A time was placed you the Madonna Rucellai today to the Uffizi.

To the left of the greater chapel, the Gondi chapel is found, designed from Giuliano from Sangallo (1503), where the Crocifisso di Filippo Brunelleschi is conserved, the only known lignea sculpture of the great architect fiorentino. According to a history brought back from the Vasari, the Brunelleschi would have carved it in answer to the Crocifisso di Donatello conserved in Croce Saint and from primitivo defined he. The times contain times of fresco between antichi of the church, of the 1300's attributed to maestranze Greek-bizantine. The vetrata one is recent and laughed them to the past century.

In bottom to the left arm of the transet, in position raised symmetricalally to the Rucellai chapel, the chapel is found Chokes of Mantova, for distiguerla from that one of Filippo Strozzi. Also this is covered of frescoes pregevoli, that they go back to 1350-57, between the best works than Nardo di Cione (brother of Andrea Orcagna), and represents the reigns of skies structured second the Divine Commedia di Dante: on the bottom wall the Universal Judgment, where it is found also ritratto of Dante, to right Hell and on the left the Paradise. On the greater altar the Redentone with Madonna and knows you of the Orcagna. The two siblings prepared also the cardboard for the vetrata one of the chapel.

The Sacristy is opened in the left navata one and initially it was constructed towards 1380 like chapel of the Annunciation. Conserve a Crocifisso with Madonna and San Giovanni Evangelista operates juvenile of great dimensions of Giotto (front to 1312). here one is found also source in invetriata marble and terracotta of Giovanni of Robbia (1498). The closets with shops were design you from Bernardo Buontalenti in 1593, while the paintings hung to the walls are works of George Vasari and other manieristi painters. Large vetrata the gotica one was realized in 1386 on design of Niccolò di Peter Gerini.

Avelli and the cemetary
The avelli they are of the niches to arcosolio used like arche burial, than they are found is in wrap inferior of the facade, you are, in proseguimento, the fencing of the small cemetary on the right, along the way that they give take the name, via of the Avelli. The avelli they were true and own places of interment in which the bodies they came wall to you in fetal position, for which, being it does not bury to you, from the fissures and from the leaks of the tombe they were given off sometimes of smells intense and repellenti, for which the way of the Avelli were sadly famous: from Tuscany saying exists that says “to smell like a avello”. The road originally was much grip and solo with the works of reorganization in 1867 assumed the tracing odierno, lastronato and pedonalizzato then in years '90 of the 1900's.

The small cemetary, with the cypresses that have been plants you single in the 1800's, is opened to the left of the basilica, in a land used like interment place until the end of XIX the century (to free entrance). In the inner fencing the reason of the avelli is found again with carved coats of arms, even if here the used slabs are in pietraforte and less good conditions that in the arche outside.

The chapel Of the Pure today it is approached from this small fencing, and comes used like only destined place to the cult when the basilica is opened to the tourist visits. The cappela laughed them to 1474, when it came made to reconstruct from the Ricasoli for costodire a thought image miraculous, the Madonna with child and Caterina Saint, trecentesca work a time frescoed in the avello of Of the Moon. From then it is found in the elegant chapel within tempietto a marmoreo one. The aspect odierno of the chapel today is but neoclassico, after the nineteenth-century restructure of Gaetano Dins, that it partially maintained the columns original of the rinascimentale period, adding some symmetricalally to altere and some lesene in stucco, that they inside created two tribunes to the two extremities.

On the altar the wood crux, the same one venerato from the Villana Blessed soul is, and is composed from the cross in cedar of the Lebanese, with quadrilobi painted with scenes of the Life of Christ: this more ancient part has been restored in 1980 and an English one of XIII the century has been revealed precious manufatto. The carved ligneo Christ instead is later and second some sources were influenced work of a fiorentino from the renana art towards 1320-1340.


Galileo Galilei. In December 1614, from the pulpit of the church (commissioned from the Rucellai family in 1443, designed from Filippo Brunelleschi and realized from Riding), the first attack against the discoveries of Galileo was hurled Galilei. The Dominican Tommaso Caccini denounced the heretical character of the copernicano system, being involved also Galileo who of was a supporter. To this some disciples of the pisano scientist reacted and Caccini reported some to the Inquisitore of Florence because it refrained “sure arrogant talents”. In letters to Benedict Castles of 1613 and Cristina di Lorena of 1615, Galileo rivendicò the autonomy of science from the faith. 24 February 1616 the Church of Rome condemned 5 the eliocentrica thesis and March decreed the suspension of the work of Copernico until when it had not been corrected. With the admonition to Galileo to abandon the copernicana hypothesis, from part of Bellarmino, concluded what it comes defined the first process to Galileo.


Florence, Public square of Saint Maria Novel
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